Buergin et al. showed sex-specific differences in myocardial injury following Moderna's mRNA technology gene based injection; Among 777 participants (median age 37 years, 69.5% women), 40 participants
by Paul Alexander
(5.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7–7.0%) had elevated hs-cTnT concentration on day 3 and mRNA-1273 vaccine-associated myocardial injury was adjudicated in 22 participants (2.8% [95% CI 1.7–4.3%])
‘Hospital employees scheduled to undergo Moderna’s booster vaccination were assessed for mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccination-associated myocardial injury, defined as acute dynamic increase in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentration above the sex-specific upper limit of normal on day 3 (48–96 h) after vaccination without evidence of an alternative cause.
To explore possible mechanisms, antibodies against interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), the SARS-CoV-2-nucleoprotein (NP) and -spike (S1) proteins and an array of 14 inflammatory cytokines were quantified.
Among 777 participants (median age 37 years, 69.5% women), 40 participants (5.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7–7.0%) had elevated hs-cTnT concentration on day 3 and mRNA-1273 vaccine-associated myocardial injury was adjudicated in 22 participants (2.8% [95% CI 1.7–4.3%]).
Twenty cases occurred in women (3.7% [95% CI 2.3–5.7%]), two in men (0.8% [95% CI 0.1–3.0%]). Hs-cTnT elevations were mild and only temporary. No patient had electrocardiographic changes, and none developed major adverse cardiac events within 30 days (0% [95% CI 0–0.4%]).
In the overall booster cohort, hs-cTnT concentrations (day 3; median 5, interquartile range [IQR] 4–6 ng/L) were significantly higher compared to matched controls (n = 777, median 3 [IQR 3–5] ng/L, p < 0.001). Cases had comparable systemic reactogenicity, concentrations of anti-IL-1RA, anti-NP, anti-S1, and markers quantifying systemic inflammation, but lower concentrations of interferon (IFN)-λ1 (IL-29) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) versus persons without vaccine-associated myocardial injury.
mRNA-1273 vaccine-associated myocardial injury was more common than previously thought, being mild and transient, and more frequent in women versus men. The possible protective role of IFN-λ1 (IL-29) and GM-CSF warrant further studies.’