Does the spike protein damage the endothelial layer and endothelial function? Evidence accumulated early to indicate that spike protein is an endothelial pathogen; spike protein from virus or vaccine

by Paul Alexander


‘data reveals that S protein alone can damage endothelium, manifested by impaired mitochondrial function and eNOS activity but increased glycolysis. It appears that S protein in ECs increases redox stress which may lead to AMPK deactivation, MDM2 upregulation, and ultimately ACE2 destabilization…Collectively, our results suggest that the S protein-exerted EC damage overrides the decreased virus infectivity.’