Lei et al.: "SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Impairs Endothelial Function via Downregulation of ACE 2"; show that Spike protein 'alone' can damage vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by downregulating ACE2

by Paul Alexander

Endothelial cells are layer of cells lining every blood vessel in the body; spike alone, no viral ball was destructive to the endothelial layer (glycocalyx); COVID-19 is a primarily vascular disease

ALONE, the spike does not need the rest of the virus so much so that purified spike causes devastating cardiovascular damage.

You do not need the rest of the virus and the replicating business end, just the spike and the spike alone can cause the massive vessel wall damage. We thus continue to question why would vaccine developers give your immune system an antigen target e.g. the spike protein (to induce an immune response) that is the most dangerous part of the virus?

“A lot of people think of it as a respiratory disease, but it’s really a vascular disease,” says Assistant Research Professor Uri Manor, who is co-senior author of the study. “That could explain why some people have strokes, and why some people have issues in other parts of the body. The commonality between them is that they all have vascular underpinnings.” Principally blood clotting.


“If you remove the replicating capabilities of the virus, it still has a major damaging effect on the vascular cells, simply by virtue of its ability to bind to this ACE2 receptor, the S protein receptor, now famous thanks to COVID,”

The prestigious Salk Institute, founded by vaccine pioneer Jonas Salk, has authored and published a bombshell scientific article revealing that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is what’s actually causing vascular damage in covid patients and covid vaccine recipients, promoting the strokes, heart attacks, migraines, blood clots and other harmful reactions that have already killed thousands of Americans (source: VAERS.hhs.gov).


SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Impairs Endothelial Function via Downregulation of ACE 2


SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Impairs Endothelial Function via Downregulation of ACE2


Yuyang Lei, Jiao Zhang, Cara R Schiavon, Ming He, Lili Chen, Hui Shen, Yichi Zhang, Qian Yin, Yoshitake Cho, Leonardo Andrade, Gerald S Shadel, Mark Hepokoski, Ting Lei, Hongliang Wang, Jin Zhang, Jason X-J Yuan, Atul Malhotra, Uri Manor, Shengpeng Wang, Zu-Yi Yuan, and John Y-J Shyy