Was there clear early evidence that the spike protein & subunits S1 etc. was persisting in the body for long durations after mRNA technology based gene injection? Yes, Ogata et al., Röltgen et al.,
by Paul Alexander
Bansal et al., Patterson et al. (spike persistence post infection); we have clear evidence of spike up to 15 months in the body & the implications are massive given immune system/body attacks spike
‘S1 antigen was detected as early as day 1 postvaccination, and peak levels were detected on average 5 days after the first injection (Figure 1A). The mean S1 peak level was 68 pg/mL ± 21 pg/mL. S1 in all participants declined and became undetectable by day 14. No antigen was detected at day zero for 12 of 13 participants, as expected. However, one individual presented detectable S1 on day zero, possibly due to assay cross-reactivity with other human coronaviruses or asymptomatic infection at the time of vaccination. Spike protein was detectable in 3 of 13 participants an average of 15 days after the first injection. The mean spike peak level was 62 pg/mL ± 13 pg/mL. After the second vaccine dose, no S1 or spike was detectable, and both antigens remained undetectable through day 56. For one individual (participant 8), spike was detected at day 29, 1 day after the second injection and was undetectable 2 days later.’
‘Immunohistochemical staining for spike antigen in mRNA-vaccinated patient LNs varied between individuals but showed abundant spike protein in GCs 16 days post-second dose, with spike antigen still present as late as 60 days post-second dose. Spike antigen localized in a reticular pattern around the GC cells,’
‘Results demonstrated induction of circulating exosomes expressing spike protein on day 14 after vaccination followed by Abs 14 d after the second dose. Exosomes with spike protein, Abs to SARS-CoV-2 spike, and T cells secreting IFN-γ and TNF-α increased following the booster dose. Transmission electron microscopy of exosomes also demonstrated spike protein Ags on their surface. Exosomes with spike protein and Abs decreased in parallel after four months.’
‘We determined that post-vaccination individuals with PASC-like symptoms had similar symptoms to PASC patients. When analyzing their immune profile, post-vaccination individuals had statistically significant elevations of sCD40L, CCL5, IL-6, and IL-8. SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 protein were detected in CD16 + monocytes using flow cytometry and mass spectrometry on sorted cells.
Post-vaccination individuals with PASC-like symptoms exhibit markers of platelet activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production which may be driven by the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein persistence in intermediate and non-classical monocytes.’
‘Here, we investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein in 46 individuals. We analyzed T-cell, B-cell, and monocytic subsets in both severe COVID-19 patients and in patients with post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). The levels of both intermediate (CD14+, CD16+) and non-classical monocyte (CD14Lo, CD16+) were significantly elevated in PASC patients up to 15 months post-acute infection compared to healthy controls (P=0.002 and P=0.01, respectively). A statistically significant number of non-classical monocytes contained SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein in both severe (P=0.004) and PASC patients (P=0.02) out to 15 months post-infection. Non-classical monocytes were sorted from PASC patients using flow cytometric sorting and the SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Cells from 4 out of 11 severe COVID-19 patients and 1 out of 26 PASC patients contained ddPCR+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells, however, only fragmented SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in PASC patients.’
We may thus strongly extrapolate to spike post mRNA technology based vaccine.